It has only been almost three decades since the web is introduced. It started with static text and images. Then came web2, which brought us to the modern internet. We are now at the beginning of web3, which envisions data being seamlessly transferred across a decentralized platform where ownership and control are distributed. How to migrate a Web2 application to Web3?
Web3 enables peer-to-peer interactions without any intermediaries and centralized platforms. It uses a technology stack that is based on decentralized blockchains. Cryptocurrencies and tokens power the economies and business models of web3.
Web3 will be the marketplace of choice for all businesses in all industries, and it is expected to become a major player in 2022. It is built on the concept of edge computing, blockchain, cryptocurrencies, NFTs, and virtual reality. Web3 development has seen a significant increase in popularity as more businesses try to integrate their products into this new space. Recent Google search trends show that web3 interest has risen by 33% in the last few months, which suggests that businesses are more interested in migrating from web2 to web3 space. Furthermore, the web2 to web3 migration is a transition from an application-centric design to a user-centric ethos of decentralization.
This article will discuss the technical aspects of migration from web2 to web3 along with the below-mentioned points.
- What is web2?
- What is web3?
- Advantages of web3 over web2
- Logics to consider while migrating from web2 to web3
- What transactions need to be stored in web2 to web3 migration?
- What will be the changes in user flow in the web2 to web3 migration?
- Components that may help in web2 to web3 migration
What is web2?
Web2 is the second generation of the World Wide Web, also known as the “read/write “web. It is a move to interactive functionality and compatibility through the following features:
- User-generated content
- Transparency in data and integrations
- The web is a platform and not a network
- Software as a Service (SaaS) via API implementation technology
With this reframed version of the internet, users can communicate in real-time with servers, post comments, edit web pages, and communicate with other users. Here are some technologies that have brought these revolutionary changes:
- Adobe Flash
- Microsoft Silverlight
Web2 can be described in three parts:
- Rich internet application (RIA) – A Rich Internet Application (RIA) is a web application designed in a way so that it can deliver the same features and functions normally associated with desktop applications. An RIA runs inside a web browser and does not require software installation on the client side to work.
- Web-oriented architecture (WOA)– It describes how web2 applications present their functionality to allow other applications to leverage and integrate it, creating a richer set of applications. Examples include RSS feeds and web services.
- Social web -It defines how web2 websites interact with end users more effectively. It allows them to add their profile, comment on content, upload new content or add user-generated content.
Limitations of web2
- Dependency on the internet to network with people
- Failure to remove outdated information
- A high number of hackers and frauds
- Lack of intelligence
What is web3?
Web3 is the “read-write-own” mode of the internet that uses blockchains, NFTs and cryptocurrencies to empower the users in the form of ownership.
Features of web3
Decentralized – Unlike web2, where the internet is controlled and owned by centralized entities, web3 allows ownership to be distributed amongst its users and builders.
Permissionless – Everybody has equal access to web3, and nobody is excluded.
Native payments – Web3 uses cryptocurrencies to send and spend money online instead of relying upon the old infrastructure of banks and payment processors.
Trustless – It uses incentives and economic mechanisms to operate rather than relying upon trusted third parties.
Web3 gives user ownership of their digital assets in an unprecedented way. For example, in the case of a web2 game, if a user purchases an in-game item, it directly gets linked to his account. So, if the game creator deletes the user’s account, he will lose all his items. Similarly, if the user stops playing the game, he will lose the invested value of the game items. Web3 allows direct ownership through NFTs, ensuring uninterrupted user ownership. Additionally, if the user stops playing, he can trade in-game items on the open market.
On web3, data lives on the blockchain. So, if a user decides to leave a platform, he can do that anytime. This censorship resistance is a native feature of web3. Besides, web3 allows users decentralized ownership through DAOs (decentralized autonomous organizations). As a result, the user not only owns data in web3 but also owns the platform as a collective using tokens. Apart from this, web3 allows single login across platforms, allowing users to control their identity.
Advantages of web3 over web2
The advantages of web3 over web2 are:
- It creates a decentralized ecosystem where transactions and services are conducted in a peer-to-peer setup.
- Users own their data.
- Without any central authority, web3 platforms offer transparency.
- Web3 data is immutable, so it cannot be altered or deleted.
- Data cannot be leaked or stolen without the user’s consent, making it secure and tamperproof.
- It provides privacy to users, allowing them to control their data without third-party intervention.
- Web3 projects are open-source.
- Web3 facilitates the development of creative and innovative projects like the Metaverse that boost the creator economy.
Logics to consider while migrating from web2 to web3
While migrating an application from web2 to web3, the following aspects should be considered:
Data storage method
We might use peer-to-peer solutions in a web3 technology stack just like we would a database in a traditional stack. However, in web3, we use blockchain technology where data is replicated across n number of nodes on a decentralized, more reliable network. Blockchain technology is not the same as a database. It stores some data, but it’s mostly transaction metadata. Also, web3 applications differ from web2 applications because they have different data architectures. Web3 applications use a user-centric data storage model. This model stores application data on a distributed network and allows users to access it. Applications can also query and write to the data client side. This is in contrast to web2 applications, which are application-centric and store all data related to an application on a single server.
Building web3 data apps is therefore possible only by using a few basic primitives:
- Network for fast data availability and mutability via a decentralized network
- Protocol for model-based, identity-centric data storage/retrieval
- Client to perform CRUD operations in users’ stores at runtime.
So, in web2 to web3 data migration-
- Need to migrate from simple data storage method to decentralized(using blockchain) data storage method.
- On web3, storage data ownership always belongs to the user, unlike centralized data storage, where user data is used for personal gain.
- On web3, data can not be altered or removed so the security and immutability of data keep intact.
- Instead of API/network calls to send/receive data, you will have to query the blockchain using smart contracts.
In web2 to web3 migration, users must migrate from a simple payment gateway to crypto wallet as web3 uses decentralized currency. Web3 wallets provide a gateway to many blockchain-based crypto apps, Decentralized Finance (DeFi), gaming, and nonfungible tokens. These applications can be accessed via a desktop browser. In this case, many processes run in the background, and the browser will notify the user of any sharing activity. Metamask, one of the most well-known web3 wallets, is a popular choice.
Users can also use third-party wallet libraries or APIs as per their requirements. As web3 transactions are done using cryptocurrency, the buy and sell flow in the application will be different than web2. In web2, a central authority like a bank controls transactions during selling and buying. On the contrary, in web3, it happens in a decentralized way. If the user wants to see the transaction listing or history, they need to fetch it from the blockchain.
What transactions need to be stored in web2 to web3 migration?
- Minting of Tokens – Whenever a user creates any token, we need to store those in web3 with all the details about its owner.
- Buy-sell/owner transfer of Tokens – Whenever a user buys or sells any tokens, that need to be stored with all the details of the previous owner and the current owner.
- Balance transfer from wallet to wallet – If any user transfers the balance to another user, that needs to be stored on the web3 with details of the sender, receiver and the amount transferred. i.e., any change which happens in the users’ wallet or user’s tokens.
What will be the changes in user flow in web2 to web3 migration?
Web3 means we digitally own content/tokens we share, mint and purchase on the platform. Hence, we have total control over our content/tokens. So, whenever we want to buy, sell, transfer and purchase with tokens, we have to interact with web3 with the help of a smart contract. So the user interaction will be very high than web2, as we have total control over our content.
Components that may help in web2 to web3 migration
Web3j is a highly modular, lightweight, reactive, type-safe Java and Android library that works with smart contracts and integrates with clients (nodes) on the Ethereum network.
- Ethereum’s JSON-RPC client API is completely implemented over HTTP and IPC
- Support for Ethereum wallet
- Java smart contract wrappers auto-generation for creating, deploying, transacting with and calling smart contracts from native Java code (Truffle and Solidity definition formats supported)
- Reactive-functional API for working with filters
- Support for Parity’s Personal and Geth’s Personal client APIs
- Ethereum Name Service support
- Support for Alchemy and Infura, so you don’t have to run an Ethereum client yourself
- Comprehensive integration tests demonstrating a number of the above scenarios
- Command line tools
- Android compatible
- Support for Quorum via web3j-quorum
- Support for EEA privacy features. It is implemented in Hyperledger Besu.
Web3.swift is a Swift library for signing transactions and interacting with Smart Contracts in the Ethereum Network. It allows users to connect parity Ethereum nodes (like Infura) or a geth read values and to send transactions from Smart Contracts without the requirement of writing the user’s own implementations of the protocols. Web3.swift supports iOS, macOS, tvOS, watchOS and Linux with Swift Package Manager.
- Efficiency in mind
GitHub – MercuryProtocol/web3.swift: Web3 and Geth wrapper utility in swift
Web3.js is a utility library written in Swift that brings web3j encoding capabilities to Swift. It also helps the management of accounts based on Geth.
- Create Account
- Import Account
- Create and Encode Transaction
- Sign Transaction
Web and BackEnd SDKs
- Direct Ether from one account to another
- Deliver and write data from smart contracts
- Make smart contracts
The underlying technical facilities of web3 are based on blockchain technology. Its unique characteristics are immutability, decentralized storage and information encryption. The main goal of migrating a web2 Application to web3 is not to make everyone a crypto trader or flip NFTs. Instead, web2 to web3 migration will redesign and rebuild web2 use cases to web3 versions. Users will get multiple benefits through the web2 to web3 migration, like high availability, compatibility, interoperability, scalability and improved user experience, to name a few. Not to mention, the services and applications in the web3 space allow users to control their data and obtain rewards with their non-custodial nature.
If you plan to migrate your application from web2 to web3, our blockchain and web3 experts can help you with a smooth migration. Connect with Omatech Web3 experts and explore new possibilities!